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le 02 septembre 2019


Transcendentalism

Posted on 2019.09.02 at 14:10
Originally posted by stanford_encyc. Reposted by madman101 at 2019-09-02 14:10:00.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/transcendentalism/

[Revised entry by Russell Goodman on August 30, 2019.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Transcendentalism is an American literary, philosophical, religious, and political movement of the early nineteenth century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson. Other important transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Lydia Maria Child, Amos Bronson Alcott, Frederic Henry Hedge, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, and Theodore Parker. Stimulated by English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, and the skepticism of Hume, the transcendentalists operated with the sense that a new era was at...

Gratitude

Posted on 2019.09.02 at 14:11
Originally posted by stanford_encyc. Reposted by madman101 at 2019-09-02 14:11:00.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/gratitude/

[Revised entry by Tony Manela on August 26, 2019.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Gratitude is the proper or called-for response in a beneficiary to benefits or beneficence from a benefactor. It is a topic of interest in normative ethics, applied ethics, moral psychology, and political philosophy. Despite its ubiquity in everyday life, there is substantive disagreement among philosophers over the nature of gratitude and its relationship to other philosophical concepts. The sections of this article address five areas of debate about what gratitude is, when gratitude is called for, and how the answers to...


Herbert Spencer

Posted on 2019.09.02 at 14:12
Originally posted by stanford_encyc. Reposted by madman101 at 2019-09-02 14:12:00.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spencer/

[Revised entry by David Weinstein on August 27, 2019.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Herbert Spencer (1820 - 1903) is typically, though quite wrongly, considered a coarse social Darwinist. After all, Spencer, and not Darwin, coined the infamous expression "survival of the fittest", leading G. E. Moore to conclude erroneously in Principia Ethica (1903) that Spencer committed the naturalistic fallacy. According to Moore, Spencer's practical reasoning was deeply flawed insofar as he purportedly conflated mere survivability (a natural property) with goodness itself (a non-natural...

Interpretations of Probability

Posted on 2019.09.02 at 14:13
Originally posted by stanford_encyc. Reposted by madman101 at 2019-09-02 14:13:00.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/probability-interpret/

[Revised entry by Alan Hájek on August 28, 2019.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
'The Democrats will probably win the next election.' 'The coin is just as likely to land heads as tails.' 'There's a 30% chance of rain tomorrow.'...


Fitch’s Paradox of Knowability

Posted on 2019.09.02 at 14:14
Originally posted by stanford_encyc. Reposted by madman101 at 2019-09-02 14:14:00.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fitch-paradox/

[Revised entry by Berit Brogaard and Joe Salerno on August 22, 2019.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Fitch's paradox of knowability (aka the knowability paradox or Church-Fitch Paradox) concerns any theory committed to the thesis that all truths are knowable. Historical examples of such theories arguably include Michael Dummett's semantic antirealism (i.e., the view that any truth is verifiable), mathematical constructivism (i.e., the view that the truth of a mathematical formula depends on the mental constructions mathematicians use to prove those formulas), Hilary Putnam's internal realism (i.e., the view that truth is what we would believe in ideal epistemic circumstances), Charles...


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